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- Table of Contents -

Introduction to the online version

Chapter 1 – The Commission and Its Recommendations

Chapter 2 – The Establishment, Mandate, and Activities of the Commission

Chapter 3 – Computers and Copyright

Chapter 4 – Machine Reproduction – Photocopying

Chapter 5 – Summary

Appendix A – Summary of the Legislative History of Computer-Related Issues and the Photocopy Issue

Appendix B – Public Law 93-573 and Public Law 95-146

Appendix C – Commissioners

Appendix D – Staff

Appendix E – Lists of Witnesses

Appendix F – Alphabetical Listing of Persons Appearing before the Commission

Appendix G – Transcripts of Commission Meetings

Appendix H – Summaries of Commission-Sponsored Studies

Appendix I – Bibliography

- Selected List of Works on Computers and Copyright

- Photocopying and the 1976 Copyright Act

- Articles Written by the Commission Staff

Appendix J – Selected Provisions of the Copyright Act of 1976 and Copyright Office Regulations

Full table of contents

PDF version of the report

Picture of commissioners and staff

Final Report of the National Commission on New Technology Uses of Copyrighted Works

Appendix I – Bibliography


Selected List of Works on Computers and Copyright

Ad Hoc Task Group on Legal Aspects Involved in National Information Systems. The copyright law as it relates to information systems and national programs; final report. Washington, D.C.: Com­mittee on Scientific and Technical Information, Federal Council for Science and Technology, 1967.

Adequate legal protection for computer programs. Utah Law Review, no. 3 (September 1968), pp. 369‑94.

Advisory Group of Nongovernmental Experts on the Protection of Computer Programs (Geneva, May 17‑30, 1976). Copyright 12 no. 7‑8 (July‑August 1976): 163‑64.

American Bar Association—Special Committee on Electronic Data Retrieval. Computers and the law; an introductory handbook. New York: Commerce Clearing House, 1966.

Banzhaf, John F. Copyright law revision: a recent amendment favors information storage and re­trieval—a report to the data processing community. Computers and Automation 15 no. 12 (December 1966): 10‑11.

—. Copyright protection for computer programs. Copyright Law Symposium no. 14 (1966), pp. 119‑79.

—. Copyrighted computer programs: some ques­tions and answers. Computers and Automation, Jul. 1965, pp. 22‑25.

—. Legal protection of computer programs. Data Processing July 1964, pp. 8‑12.

—. When a computer needs a lawyer. New York Law Journal 158, no. 5 (July l0, 1967): 1 ff.; no. 6 (July 11, 1967): 1 ff.

Beard, Joseph. The copyright issue. In Annual Reviewof Information Science and Technology 9 (1974): 381-411.

Bender, David. Computer programs shall they be patentable? Columbia Law Review 68 no. 2 (Feb­ruary 1968): 241‑59.

—. Trade secret protection of software. George Washington University Law Review 38 no. 5: 909‑57.

—. Trade secret software protection. APLA Quarterly Journal, vol. 5, no 1, 49‑70.

Benjamin, Curtis G. Computers and copyrights: re­strictions on computer use of copyrighted material would protect authors, publishers, and even users. Science 152, no. 3719 (April 8, 1966): 181‑84.

—. Computers copyrights and educators. An address . . . delivered at the 75th Annual Meeting, American Society for Engineering Education Michigan State University, June 19‑22, 1967. New York, 1967.

Bigelow, Robert P. Attorney for the computer user. American Bar Association Journal 63 (July 1977): 954‑58.

—.The computer as a copyright infringer. Law and Computer Technology  1, no. 5 (May 1968): 2 ‑ 5.

. Computer law service. Chicago: Callaghan, 1972—.

—. Your computer and the law. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1975.

Breyer, Stephen. The uneasy case for copyright: a study of copyright in books, photocopies and com­puter programming. Harvard Law Review 84, no. 2 (December 1970): 281‑351.

Buckman, T. Protection of proprietary interest in computer programs. Journal of the Patent Office Society 51, no. 3 (March 1969): 135‑51.

Bush, George P. Technology and copyright: annotated bibliography and source materials. Mt. Airy, Md.: Lomond,1972.

Cambridge Research Institute. Omnibus copyright revision: comparative analysis of the issues. Washing­ton, D.C.: American Society for Information Science, 1973.

Cary, George D. Copyright registration and computer programs. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 11, no. 6 (August 1964): 362‑68.

Cohen, Eric. Comprehensive copyright legislative proposal backfires—omnibus or blunderbuss ? Jurimertrics Journal 15 (1974): 32 ff.

—. Patentablility of computer programs. Univer­sity of Miami Law Review27, nos. 3‑4 (Spring-­Summer 1973): 494‑504.

Computer program classification: A limitation in pro­gram patentability as a process. Oregon Law Review 53, no. 4: 501‑31.

Computer programs and proposed revisions of the patent and copyright laws.  Harvard Law Review 81, no. 7 (May 1968): 1541‑57.

Computer programs and subject matter patentability. Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law 6 (1977): 1‑25.

 {Page 136}

Computer software: beyond the limits of existing proprietary protection. Brooklyn L aw Review 40 (1973): 1 1046.

Copyright implications in the new science of data storage and retrieval. Publishers Weekly 186, no. 22 (November 30, 1964): 2-23.

Copyright law revision: its impact on classroom copying and information storage and retrieval systems. Iowa Law Review 52, no. 6 (June 1967): 1141‑69.

Copyright protection for computer programs. Columbia Law Review 64 (1964): 1274 ff.

Coraskic, M. J., and Brockway, B. C. Protection of computer‑based information. Albany Law Review 40 (1975): 113‑53.

Cunningham, Dewey J. Information retrieval and the copyright law. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 14, no. 1 (October 1966): 22‑27.

Duggan, Michael A. Law, logic, and the computer; bibliography with assorted background material. Computing Reviews 7, no. 1 (January‑February 1966): 95‑117. Supplement in Computing Reviews 8, no. 2 (March‑April 1967): 171‑88.

Duncan, Gaylen Arthur. "Canadian business and eco­nomic implications protecting computer programmes.”  Ph.D. thesis, 1975, University of Texas at Austin (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1976, order no. 76-14440).

Etienne, Alexander I. Patent and copyright implica­tions of electronic data processing. Idea 8(1964): 176-82.

Felsman, Robert A., and others. Computer program protection.Texas Bar Journal 34, no. 1 (January 22, 1971): 33‑40, 53‑61.

Fletcher, Richard L., and Smith, Stephen P. Com­puters, the copyright law and its revision. Univer­sity of Florida Law Review 20, no. 3 (Winter 1968): 386‑410.

Freed, Roy N. Computers and the law: a reference work. 5th ed. Boston, 1976.

Galbi, Elmer. Proposal for new legislation to protect computer programming. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 17, no. 4: 280-96.

George Washington University—Computers‑in‑Law Institute. The law of software; 1968 proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1968.

—. The law of software; 1969 proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1969.

George Washington University—Patent, Trademark and Copyright Institute. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Public Conference. Washington, D.C., 1964.

Gipe, George A. Nearer to the dust: copyright and the machine. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1967.

Goldberg, Morton David. Patent and copyright im­plications of electronic data processing. Idea 8 (1964): 183‑90.

Gonda, Edward C. Patents, copyrights, unfair com­petition and confidentiality of information. In Course of study transcript. law and computers in the mid‑60's. Philadelphia: Joint Committee on Con­tinuing Legal Education of the American Law Institute and the American Bar Association, 1966, pp. 213‑47.

Gotlieb, A., Dalfen, C., and Katz, K. Transborder transfer of information by communications and com­puter systems: issues and approaches to guiding principles. American Journal of International Law 68 (1974): 227‑57.

Gottschalk v. Benson (93 Sup. Ct. 253): a bright light with a dim future. Baylor Law Review 28 (1976): 187‑96.

Gottschalk v. Benson (93 Sup. Ct. 253)—the Supreme Court takes a hard line on software. St. John's Law Review 47 (May 1973): 635‑71.

Gotzen, Frank. Copyright and the computer. Copy­right13, no. 1 (January 1977): 15‑21.

Greenbaum, Arthur J. Computers, copyrights, and the law prior to revision. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 15, no. 3 (February 1968): 164‑73

Greenberger, M., ed. Computers, communications, and the public interest. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971.

Gunning, W. J. Computer programs. CIPA, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 15054.

Hamann, H. Frederick. Comments on the copyright aspects of automatic information storage and re­trieval systems. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 15, no. 3 (February 1968): 164-73.

Henderson, Madeline M. Copyright impacts of future technology,Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 72‑74.

Henry, Nicholas. Copyright: its adequacy in tech­nological societies. Science 186, no. 4168 (Decem­ber 13, 1974): 993‑1004.

—. Copyright, public policy, and information technology.Science183, no. 4123 (February 1, 1974): 384‑91.

Hill, James. Scope of protection for computer pro­grams under the Copyright Act. De Paul Law Re­view14, no. 2 (Spring‑Summer 1965): 360‑70.

Horty, John F. Computers and copyright: a third area. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 15, no. 1 (October 1967): 19‑23.

Impacts of copyright developments on chemical in­formation transmission and use. Journal of Chemi­cal Information and Computer Sciences16, no. 2 (May 1976): 63‑75.

In re Johnston (502 F. 2d 765): New output by the CCPA on the patentability of computer software. University of Pittsburgh Law Review 36 (1975): 739‑55.

In re Johnston (502 F. 2d 765): Patentability of com­puter software the battle rages on. Ohio Northern Law Review 2 (1975): 782‑87.

Irwin, Manley R. The computer utility: competition or regulation? Yale Law Journal 76, no. 7 (June 1967): 1299‑1320.

Iskrant, John. The impact of the multiple forms of computer programs on their adequate protection by copyright. Copyright Law Symposium, no. 18 (1970), pp. 92‑134.

Jacobs, Morton C. Computer technology (hardware and software): some legal implications for {Page 137} antitrust, copyrights, and patents. Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law, 1970, pp. 50-69.

—. Patent protection of computer programs. Journal of the Patent Office Society 47, no. 1 (January 1965): 6-14.

—. Patents, copyrights and trade secrets. In American Bar Association—Special Committee on Electronic Data Retrieval. Computers and the law; an introductory hand book. New York: Commerce Clearing House, 1966, pp. 90‑93.

Jovanovich, William. To vouchsafe identity. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 14, no. 5 (June 1967): 355‑66.

Kastenmeier, Robert W. The information explosion and copyright law revision. Bulletin of the Copy­right Society of the U.S.A. 14,no. 3 (February 1967): 195‑204.

Katona, Gabriel P. Legal protection of computer pro­grams.Journal of the Patent Office Society 47, no. 12 (December 1965): 955‑79.

Kolle, Gert.Computer software protection—present situation and future prospects Copyright 13, no. 3 (March 1976): 70‑79.

Koller, Herbert. Computer software protection. Idea 13 (1969): 351‑72.

Koller, Herbert, and Moshman, Jack. Patent protection for computer software. Idea, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1109‑27.

Lawlor, Reed C. Applications of computers to law; a progress report. In Data processing yearbook, 1963‑64. Detroit, 1963, pp. 199‑206.

—. Bibliography re patent and copyright law in relation to computer technology. Modern Uses of Logic in Law, June 1965, pp. 53‑55.

—. Copyright aspects of computer usage. Bulle­tin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 11, no. 6 (August 1964): 380-403.

Information technology and the law. New York: Academic Press, 1962.

Licklider, J. C. R. Libraries of the future. Cam­bridge: MIT Press, 1965.

Lieb, Charles. The computer and copyright: the next five years. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 15, no. 1 (October 1967): 13‑18.

Linden, Bella L. Copyright, photocopying, and com­puter usage. Bulletin of the American Society f or Information Science 11 ( May 1975 ): 12‑14.

—. The law of copyright and unfair competi­tion: the impact of new technology on the dissemi­nation of information. Modern Uses of Logic in Law, June 196S, pp. 44-52.

Lorr, Richard. Copyright computers and compulsory licensing. Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 149-69.

McFarlane, Gavin. Legal protection of computer pro­grams. Journal of Business Law, July 1970, pp. 204-8.

McTiernan, Charles E. The protection of programs through copyright and other methods. Abington, Pa.: Association of Data Processing Service Or­ganizations, 1964.

Marke, Julius J. Copyright and intellectual property.New York: Fund for the Advancement of Educa­tion, 1967.

Milde, Karl F. Can a computer be an "author" or an "inventor"?, Journal of the Patent Office So­ciety 51,no. 6 (June 1969): 378-405.

Miller, Arthur R. Computers and copyright law Michigan State Bar Journal 46 (1967): 11‑18.

Miller, James G. EDUCOM: Interuniversity Communications Council. Science 154, no. 3748 (October 28, 1966): 483‑88.

Model provisions on the protection of computer soft­ware, prepared by the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In­dustrial Property 16, no. 12 (December 1977): 259-75, and Law and Computer Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 2‑27.

Mooers, Calvin N. Computer software and copyright. Computing Surveys7 (March 1975): 46 ff.

—. Copyright seen as best program protection covers unauthorized use, translations. Computer world 5, no. 41 (October 13, 1971): 28.

—. Preventing software piracy. Computer, March 1977, p. 30.

National Academy of Sciences—Panel on the Appli­cation of Copyright on Computer Usage. Report on the application of copyright on computer usage. Washington, D.C., 1967.

Nawrocki, Boleslaw.Electronic machines and intellectual creation; some legal problems arising in connection with the use of electronic machines in the creation and dissemination of intellectual works. Copyright5,no. 2 (February 1969): 29‑37.

Nelson, Greg J. The copyrightability of computer programs. Arizona Law Review 7, no. 2 (Spring 1966): 204-18.

Note: protection of computer programs: resurrection of the standard. Notre Dame Lawyer 50 (1974): 333-45.

Nycum, P. Law and computers: overview update 1975. Law Library Journal 68 (August 1975): 23-53.

Oberman, Michael S. Copyright protection for com­puter‑produced directories. Copyright Law Sympo­sium, no. 22 (1977 ), pp. 1‑52.

Ogden, Mark H. Protection of computer software— a hard problem. Drake Law Review 26, no. 1 (1976-77): 180-98.

Oler, Harriet. Statutory copyright protection for electronic digital computer programs: administra­tive considerations. Law and Computer Teratology 7, no. 4 (July/August 1974): 96‑116, and no. 5 (September/October 1974): 118‑22.

Pagenberg, B. A. Patentability of computer programs on the national and international level. International Review of 1ndustrial Property and Copy­right Law 5 (1974): 1‑43.

Pataki, Louis Peter. Copyright protection for com­puter programs under the 1976 Copyright Act. Indiana Law Journal 52, no. 2 (Winter 1977): 503‑16.

Patentability: piecing together the computer soft­ware patent puzzle. St. Louis University Law Journal 19 (Spring 1975): 351‑74.

{Page 138}

Patentability of computer software: the nonobvious­ness issue. Indiana Law Review 62 (1976): 615-­35.

Perle, E. Gabriel. Copyright and new technology. Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 25 (February 1978): 250‑54.

Petre, David C. Statutory copyright protection for books and magazines against machine copying. Notre Dame Lawyer 39, no. 2 (February 1964): 161‑84.

Popper, H. R. Technology and programming—is it a problem in definitions? APLA Quarterly Journal, vol. 5. no. 1, pp. 13‑29.

Prasinos, N. Worldwide protection of computer pro­grams by copyright. Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law 4 (1974): 42‑85.

Protecting proprietary rights of computer programs: the need for legislative action. Catholic University Law Review 21 (1971): 181‑200.

Protection of computer software—a hard problem. Drake Law Review 26 (1976‑77): 180‑98.

Puckett, Allen W. The limits of copyright and patent protection for computer programs. Copyright Law Symposium, no. 16 (1968), pp. 81‑142.

Rackman, Michael I. The patentability of computer programs. New York University Law Review 38, no. 5 (November 1963): 891‑916.

—. Re: legal protection of computer programs. Journal of the Patent Office Society 48, no. 4 (April 1966): 27-77.

Saltman, Roy G. Copyright in computer‑readable works (National Bureau of Standards special publication 500‑17). Washington, D.C.: Govern­ment Printing Office, 1977, Stock No. 003‑003­01843‑1.

Scaffetta, J. Computer software and unfair methods of competition. John Marshall Journal 10 (Spring 1977): 447‑64.

—. Program technology as an infringement. APLA Quarterly Journal, vol. 5. no. 1. pp. 35-48.

Schiffer, George. Computers and copyright law revi­sion.Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 11,no. 6 (August 1964): 404‑7.

Schulman, John. The copyright law—is it a roadblock to information retrieval? Bulletin of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 11,no. 6 (August 1964): 369-79.

Schuyler, William E. Protecting property in computer software. U.S. Department of Commerce News, Oc­tober 8, 1969.

Seidel, Arthur H. Antitrust, patent, and copyright law implications of computer technology. Journal of the Patent Office Society 44, no. 2 (February 1962 ): 116‑25.

Stedman, John C. Copyright developments in the United States. American Association of University Presses Bulletin 62, no. 3 (October 1976): 308-19.

Stork, Philip. Legal protection for computer pro­grams: a practicing attorney's approach. Copyright Law Symposium, no. 20 (1972), pp. 112‑39.

Teaching machines: the impact of new devices on educational publishing. Pub1ishers Weekly189, no. 10 (March 7, 1966): 103 ff.

Telex v. IBM (367 F. Supp. 258 ): implications for the businessman and the computer manufacturer. Virginia Law Review 60 (May 1974): 884‑909.

Ulmer, Eugen. Automatic and in particular, compu­terized information and documentation systems and the copyright law. Copyright 11,no. 12 (December 1975): 239-46.

—. Copyright problems arising from the use of copyright materials in automatic information and documentation systems. Copyright 14,no. 2 (Febru­ary 1978): 6-70.

Veaner, Allen B. Developments in copying methods and graphic communication, 1965. Library Re­sources and Technical Services 10, no. 2 (Spring 1966): 199-209.

Wessel, M. R. Legal protection of computer programs. Harvard Business Review 43 (1965): 97‑106.

—. Telex v. IBM (367 F. Supp. 258): another viewpoint. Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law 5 (1975): 1‑13.

Weil, Ben H. Symposium on the impacts of copyright developments on chemical‑information transmission and use: introduction. Journal of Chemical Infor­mation and Computer Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 63-67.

—.Where do we go from here on copyright im­pacts and solutions? Journal of Chemical Informa­tion and Computer Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 75.

Wild, Robert W. Computer program protection: the need to legislate a solution. Cornell Law Review 54, no. 4 (April 1969): 586-609.

Wolfle, Dael.Copyright and computers. Science 156, no. 3773 (April 21, 1967): 319.

Next section: Photocopying and the 1976 Copyright Act