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- Table of Contents -

Introduction to the online version

Chapter 1 – The Commission and Its Recommendations

Chapter 2 – The Establishment, Mandate, and Activities of the Commission

Chapter 3 – Computers and Copyright

Chapter 4 – Machine Reproduction – Photocopying

Chapter 5 – Summary

Appendix A – Summary of the Legislative History of Computer-Related Issues and the Photocopy Issue

Appendix B – Public Law 93-573 and Public Law 95-146

Appendix C – Commissioners

Appendix D – Staff

Appendix E – Lists of Witnesses

Appendix F – Alphabetical Listing of Persons Appearing before the Commission

Appendix G – Transcripts of Commission Meetings

Appendix H – Summaries of Commission-Sponsored Studies

Appendix I – Bibliography

Appendix J – Selected Provisions of the Copyright Act of 1976 and Copyright Office Regulations

Full table of contents

PDF version of the report

Picture of commissioners and staff

Final Report of the National Commission on New Technology Uses of Copyrighted Works

Appendix C – Commissioners


Stanley H. Fuld


Judge Fuld, chairman of CONTU, served as associate judge of the New York Court of Appeals from 1946 until 1966, and as chief judge of the state of New York and the New York Court of Appeals of New York, from 1967 through 1973. He is currently special counsel to the law firm of Kaye, Scholer, Fierman, Hays and Handler. Judge Fuld received his LL.B. from Columbia University Law School in 1926, and honorary LL.D. degrees from a number of colleges and universities. He has served on several occasions as a judge in the Nathan Burkan Memorial Competition sponsored by the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers.


Melville B. Nimmer


Professor Nimmer teaches copyright law, constitutional law, and contracts at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is the author of the treatise Nimmer on Copyright and of the casebook Copyright and Other Aspects of Law Pertaining to Literary, Musical, and Artistic Works. Professor Nimmer has also written numerous articles dealing with both freedom of speech and copyright. He has been active in international copyright meetings and has served at various times as consultant to both the Berne Convention Secretariat and UNESCO'S Copyright Division.


George D. Cary

Retired Register of Copyrights, Mr. Cary began his career with the Copyright Office in 1947 after serving in the navy during World War II as lieutenant commander. In the Copyright Office, he served successively as attorney, assistant chief-Examining Division, principal legal advisor, general counsel, deputy register, and then Register. Commissioner Cary has been a lecturer at the George Washington University Law Center and the Practising Law Institute. He is also a trustee of the Copyright Society of the United States.


William S. Dix

At the time of his death on February 22, 1978, Dr. Dix was librarian emeritus of Princeton University. He retired in 1975 after completing twenty-two years as librarian of Princeton University and had been before that an associate professor and librarian at the Rice Institute, Houston, Texas. Dr. Dix received a Ph.D. in English from the University of Chicago. He has been chairman of the Association of Research Libraries and president of the American Library Association (ALA) and has served as chairman of both the Intellectual Freedom and the International Relations Committees of ALA. Dr. Dix was also active in international library and cultural activities and served as chairman of the United States National Commission for UNESCO.


John Hersey

A novelist and journalist, Mr. Hersey is the author of eighteen books and a winner of the Pulitzer Prize for fiction. He is president of the Authors League of America, Inc., and secretary of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. He served for five years as master of Pierson College, Yale University, and has been writer-in-residence at the American Academy in Rome. He has also been visiting professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Yale, where he presently teaches.

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Rhoda H. Karpatkin

Ms. Karpatkin is executive director of Consumers Union, the nonprofit product-testing and consumer-advisory organization that publishesConsumer Reports. Before joining Consumers Union in 1974, she had been engaged in the private practice of law, and had served as Consumer Union's legal counsel for sixteen years. Ms. Karpatkin chairs the Special Committee on Consumer Affairs of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, and is a member of the Consumer Advisory Council of the City of New York. She is also a member of the American Bar Association Commission on Law and the Economy.


Dan M. Lacy

Mr. Lacy is senior vice-president and executive assistant to the president of McGraw Hill, Inc. From 1953 until 1966, Mr. Lacy was managing director of the American Book Publishers Council, with responsibility for representing book industry points of view on copyright. He later served for several years as a member and chairman of the industry's Copyright Committee. Commissioner Lacy has attended international copyright conferences for both the International Publishers Association and the U.S. delegation. He has been a member of the American Library Association and served for a number of years as an officer of the Library of Congress.


Arthur R. Miller

A law professor at the Harvard Law School since 1972, Professor Miller was chairman of the Massachusetts Security and Privacy Council and also directed the Association of American Law Schools Project on Computer-Assisted Instruction. While teaching law at the University of Michigan Law School from 1965 to 1972, Mr. Miller served as advisor to the Special Committee on Computer Research for the State Bar of Michigan. Computer technology and aspects of copyright are among the many topics on which he has testified, lectured, and written.


E. Gabriel Perle

Vice-president—Law for Time, Inc., Mr. Perle has long been active in the Copyright Society of the United States; he has been president, vice-president, and a member of the board of trustees of that organization. In 1972 and 1973 Commissioner Perle was vice-president of the United States Trademark Association and served as a director from 1969 through 1972, and from 1974 until the present. Also active in copyright divisions of the American Bar Association (ABA) and the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, he has been chairman of the Copyright Division of the Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Section of ABA.


Hershel B. Sarbin

Mr. Sarbin is executive vice-president and a member of the board of the Ziff Corporation. He was formerly president of the company's magazine publishing subsidiary. Commissioner Sarbin maintains an active interest in education, writing, and lecturing. He is coauthor of Photography and the Law and has written numerous articles and spoken frequently on marketing, travel, leisure activity, and law-related topics. He has taught at the City College of New York and Tufts University and in 1971 was a visiting fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.


Robert Wedgeworth

Executive director of the American Library Association (ALA) since 1972, Mr. Wedgeworth is the former editor of Library Resources and Technical Services, the official journal of ALA'S Resources and Technical Services Division. He is a member of the National Library of Medicine Biomedical Library Review Committee, the Chicago Quality of Life Committee, and the Chicago American Issues Forum Committee.


Alice E. Wilcox

Ms. Wilcox is director of MINITEX (Minnesota Interlibrary Telecommunications Exchange), a program of the Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board. MINITEX administers a network for the academic libraries in the state and major public and state agency libraries. Commissioner Wilcox has served on the National Commission of Libraries and Information Science's Committee on Periodical Systems, {Page 109} the Midwest Library Network, and the Executive Board of the Minnesota Library Association. In 1974 she was named Minnesota Librarian of the Year.


Daniel J. Boorstin

Before being named Librarian of Congress in November 1975, Dr. Boorstin taught at the University of Chicago for twenty-five years and served as senior historian of the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of History and Technology. Both historian and lawyer, as well as the author of numerous books, Dr. Boorstin was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1974 for The Democratic Experience, the third volume of The Americans, aU.S. history.


Barbara A. Ringer

Register of Copyrights in the Library of Congress since 1973, Ms. Ringer has been with the Copyright Office since 1949 when she began as an examiner. She left the Copyright Office briefly in 1972 to serve as director of the Copyright Division of UNESCO in Paris. Ms. Ringer has lectured on copyright throughout the world and has written many articles, monographs, and other documents on the subject, which have been published both here and abroad.